Advance Copies: Completed product sent to the client via air courier to be received before the bulk arrives via ocean freight.
Application File: Computer ﬁle still in its native software format.
Arlin: Artiﬁcial Linen. Our standard synthetic case material for a hardbound book.
Art Paper: A smooth matte or glossy paper with a coating of china clay compound on one or both sides.
Artwork: Materials that make up the composition of the book or product.
Assembly: Bringing together the separate sections of a book or package into a complete whole. Also known as Gathering.
Backbone: The back of a bound book connecting the front and back covers. Also known as the Spine.
Back Flap: The back inner fold of the dust jacket or cover.
Backing-up: Printing the reverse side of a sheet that has already been printed on one side.
Back Matter: Any material printed at the end of a book, such as appendix, addendum, glossary, index, etc.
Bar Code: A series of vertical bars of varying thickness printed on covers, dust jackets, or labels to be scanned for ISBN and price.
Bill of Lading (B/L): The document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company, serving as a document of title, a contract of carriage, and a receipt for goods. Also known as Packing Slip.
Bind: To fasten sheets or signatures together using thread, wire, glue, or other means.
Binder Board: A stiﬀ composition board used in the covers of casebound books.
Bindery: A facility that trims, collates, and binds printed material.
Bleed: Portion of printed image extending beyond the trim edge of the sheet or page.
Blind Embossing: The process of raising or recessing an image using an un-inked block.
Blocking: A process for stamping a design on a book cover using a colored foil with pressure from heated
die or block. See FoilStamp.
Blueline (Ozalid): A photoprint made from stripped-up ﬁlm used as a ﬁnal proof to check the position of image elements on each page. Also known as an Ozalid or Blues.
Blues: See Blueline.
Book Block: The main text or body of the book after all signatures have been collated or gathered.
Book Jacket: See Dust Jacket.
BPC: Black Plate Change. The method of changing the black plate on a process printing press, allowing for a change of black text without aﬀecting color. A BPC may be used when producing books with common art but diﬀerent language versions, or for books which have the same art and language text but have two or more imprints or logo changes.
Bronzing: A process for obtaining a metallic ﬁnish on printed matter by printing ﬁrst with adhesive ink, then dusting bronzing powder on by hand or with a bronzing machine. Bronzing gives a better result than printing with metallic ink.
Bulk: (1) The thickness of paper expressed by pages per inch (PPI). (2) The ocean freight unit of complete product.
Bullʼs Eye: See Hickey.
Burn Out: An opaque mask used in platemaking to clean up areas of a printing plate where there might be unwanted images when a plate is made from more than one exposure.
Casebinding: Type of binding in which the cover is made of rigid or ﬂexible boards covered with paper or
Casebound: A book bound with a hard cover. Also called Hardbound or Clothbound.
CIF: Cost, Insurance, and Freight. A term of sale in which the seller pays for the cost of paper, printing, and binding; insurance coverage on the shipment; and the freight to the clientʼs speciﬁed port. The client is then responsible for customs, clearance, and transportation to the ﬁnal destination.
Clothbound: See Casebound.
Coated Paper: Paper having a surface coating which produces a smooth matte or gloss ﬁnish.
Coil Binding: See Spiral Binding.
Collating: The assembling of folded signatures in proper sequence. Also known as Gathering.
Color Bar: A colored strip in various densities printed on the edge of a sheet to verify the consistency of each ink ﬁlm or the specially prepared strips of ﬁlm from which they are made.
Color Correction: Any method such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching, or scanning used to improve color rendition.
Color Matching System: See PMS.
Color Proof: A proof used to check for the resolution and print quality of color. Also known as Wet Proof, when the proof is made using ﬁlm, or Digital Proof, when the proof is made using digital data.
Color Separation: The process of separating full-color originals into the primary printing colors in ﬁlm form.
Color Swatch: Color guides which may be graded in a standardized fashion as in the Pantone Matching System (PMS).
Consignee: The recipient of shipped goods.
Continuous Tone: An image that has not been screened and contains gradient tones from black to white.
Contrast: The tonal gradation between highlights, middle tones, and shadows in an original or reproduction.
Copyright: The right of an author or artist to control the use of the original work. While broadly controlled by international agreement, there are substantial diﬀerences between countries. In the UK, copyright or intellectual property generally exists by virtue of the creation of an original work, while in the US it is more often by registration.
Cromalin: See Dry Proof.
Crop: To eliminate portions of the copy, usually on a photograph or plate, indicated on the original by “cropmarks.” The edge of the printed area.
Cross Grain: The direction perpendicular to the ﬁbers of the paper. It is not recommended to fold against the grain.
Crossover: Image or text that extends across the gutter to the opposite page.
CTP: Computer to Plate. The process of taking an electronic ﬁle and outputting it directly onto a printing plate.
Customs Papers: See Export Declaration.
Cut Flush: A binding in which the cover is trimmed to the same size as the pages with a guillotine or a three-knife trimmer.
Cut-out: An illustration where the background has been removed to provide a silhouette.
Cyan: The name given to the blue ink used in four-color process printing. Cyan reﬂects blue and green light and absorbs red light.
Deboss: To press an image into paper so that it lies below the surface.
Densitometer: In photography, a photoelectric instrument which measures the density of photographic image or colors. In printing, a reﬂection densitometer is used to measure the color consistency and density throughout the run.
Density: The weight of tone or color in any image, measurable by a densitometer. The printed highlight can be no brighter than the base paper or board, while the shadow can be no darker than the quality and volume of ink the printing process will permit. A greater range is possible on ﬁlm and color transparencies than in printing.
Die-cutting: The use of sharp steel rules to cut shapes out of text sheets or caseside and limpbound covers for pop-up books, advertising materials, or unique projects. Die-cutting usually refers to a clean, smooth cut in the material and can be an entire cutting out of material or partial cutting of material. Die-cutting can be done on either ﬂat-bed or rotary presses.
Digital Ozalid: A blueline created with the CTP process used for positioning and last minute page changes and not for color or quality.
Digital Plate: See Digital Proof.
Digital Proof: A proof made directly from a digital ﬁle. Corrections can be made directly to the computer ﬁles. Also known as Digital Plate.
Door-to-door Delivery: A term of sale in which the seller pays the price that includes transportation from the printerʼs door to the door of the clientʼs warehouse. The client is then responsible for unloading the bulk from the truck.
Dot Gain: The tendency of halftone dots to grow during the reproduction chain from original to printed image, leading to inaccurate results. If dot gain characteristics of a particular press are known, they can be compensated for in the reproduction stage. Typical dot gain values for three common printing onditions:
|Non-heatset web embossing||28%||33%||30%||34%|
DPI: Dots Per Inch. The unit of measure for output resolution and input resolution from a scanner, referring to the number of dots that ﬁt in an inch.
Drawn On: Term for a “softbound” (perfect bound or smyth sewn) book.
Dry Proof: Processes such as cromalin or matchprint that provide a color proof from ﬁlm without the need for platemaking by using tone powders or colored ﬁlms. Dry proofs are eﬃcient for producing small
numbers of color proofs rapidly and are especially useful in the control of dot gain.
Dummy: A blank book made in advance to show all speciﬁcations such as size, shape, form, and style
without containing any printed matter.
Dust Cover: See Dust Jacket.
Dust Jacket: Printed or unprinted wrapper placed around a casebound book. Also known as Dust Cover, Dust Wrapper, or Book Jacket.
Emulsion Side: The side of the printing ﬁlm coated with the silver halide emulsion on which the image is developed.
End Papers: See Endsheets.
Endsheets: Four pages pasted on the outside of the ﬁrst and last signature used to bind the book block to the caseside when producing a casebound book. The endsheets are usually a paper stock that is thicker and stronger than the text stock in order to bear the weight of the book block when glued to the caseside. Also known as End Papers.
EPS: Encapsulated PostScript. A high-resolution, electronic ﬁle format that includes PostScript code and a low resolution representation of the image, used to transfer PostScript image information from one program to another.
Export Declaration: Paperwork given to the carrier required for clearing a shipment through US Customs. Also known as Customs Papers.
Film Assembly: See Stripping.
Film Lamination: Bonding plastic ﬁlm to printed material for protection and appearance.
FIS: Free Into Store. A term of sale in which the seller is responsible for all costs of delivery.
Flat Back/Square Back: Reinforcing the spine of the caseside with a piece of board to achieve either a ﬂat, stiﬀ spine or a soft, ﬂexible spine.
Flexible Binding: A binding method using paper over paper, allowing for endsheets and a hollow spine in a softbound book.
FOB: Freight on Board. A term of sale in which the seller pays for the delivery of the bulk shipment to the dock warehouse or the clientʼs freight forwarderʼs terminal (Hong Kong) and clears the goods for export. The clientʼs freight forwarder is responsible for loading the bulk shipment into the boat and subsequent duty and delivery.
Foil: Tissue-thin material with metal or pigment used in book stamping with a stamping die.
Foil Stamp: Plastic ﬁlm with a gold, silver, or metalized coloring, used to block designs in packaging, book covers, and jackets. See Blocking.
Folio: The actual page number in a book, not including the end papers.
Font: In composition, the complete set of characters of one type and face.
FPO: For Position Only. An illustration used only to indicate position, not for reproduction.
Freight Forwarder: An international shipping and customs broker accepting shipments from our vendors and combining them for cost-eﬃcient ocean freight cargo.
French Fold: Two folds at right angles used on jackets, forming a four-page, uncut section.
Front Matter: All pages preceding page 1 of a book.
FTP: File Transfer Protocol. A method of transferring ﬁles from one computer to another across the Internet Gate Fold. Two parallel folds towards each other in which the fold can be opened like a double gate.
Gathering: See Assembly and Collating.
Ghosting: A faint image on a printed sheet, appearing intentionally or not.
Gilding: Gold leaﬁng the edges of a book.
Gloss: A paperʼs shine or luster that reﬂects light.
Grade: A means of ranking paper and cloth types.
Grain: The direction in which the majority of paper ﬁbers are aligned.
GSM: Grams per Square Meter. Unit of measurement for paper. (See the Conversion Wheel insert.
Gutter: The blank space or inner margin, separating printing area from the binding.
Halftone: The conversion of continuous-tone artwork, such as a photograph, into dots of varying size through a crossline or contact screen.
Hand Bound: A book which has been adhered and stitched by hand due to special requirements or to expedite the completion of advance copies.
Hardbound: See Casebound.
Hard Copy: The permanent visual record of the output of a computer or printer, as opposed to the digital data.
Hard Dot: A halftone dot with a sharp, clean edge that can only be minimally retouched or etched.
Head Margin: The white space above the ﬁrst line on a page.
Head/Tail Bands: A small decorative strip of silk, cotton, or synthetic material used at the top (head) and bottom (tail) of a casebound book to decoratively ﬁll the gap formed between the spine of the book and the cover.
Hickey: A printing defect caused by dust (usually from the paper or boardʼs surface) or ink skin holding the paper away from printing surface. Also known as Bullʼs Eye.
Highlight: The lightest part of a halftone.
Hinge: The ﬂexible joint where the cover and spine of a casebound book meet, allowing the cover to open without breaking the spine or breaking apart signatures. Also known as Joint.
Hollow: The space at the back of a casebound book between the case and the book block.
Hue: The main attribute of a color (its redness or blueness), as opposed to its shade (its lightness or darkness).
Humidity: Moisture in the air that may aﬀect paper materials involved in the printing process.
Imposition: Positioning of pages in a press form so they will be in the correct order after the printed sheet is folded and cut.
Insert: A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or another printed piece.
Inside Delivery: A delivery made inside a building or garage that carries an additional charge.
Interleaving: Inserting blank pieces of paper between printed sheets to either separate completed books or to avoid wet ink from transferring. Also known as Slipsheeting.
ISBN: International Standard Book Number. A unique ten-ﬁgure serial number assigned to every printed book to identify publisher, title, language of publication, and edition. Often included in the bar code.
ISO 9000: International Organization for Standardization 9000. A series of internationally recognized and accepted quality management and quality control standards.
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group. A color image compression format which allows the storage of high quality images in relatively small ﬁles by balancing compression against loss of detail in the image.
Kiss-cut: The use of sharp steel rules to cut shapes into materials without cutting out the material. Kiss-cutting is usually used when cutting shapes for sticker books when the sticker must be cut out but not the backing material. Kiss-cutting can be done on either ﬂat-bed or rotary presses.
Kivar: A readily available synthetic leather-like material made of paper that may be glued to the boards of a hardcover book and stamped in foils.
Kraft Paper: A brown paper used to wrap and pack books.
Lamination: A plastic ﬁlm bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection or appearance. Used mostly for both hardbound cases and limpbound covers, the lamination process will darken the original color on the cover.
Landscape (or Oblong): A book or other printed matter with a greater width than height
Library Binding: A casebound book with a cloth or cambric hinge; reinforced binding.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: An identiﬁcation number issued by the Library of Congress, normally appearing on the copyright page.
Liftgate: Specialized truck needed for shipment destinations which do not have a loading dock. See Loading Dock.
Limited Edition: A book or print restricted to a speciﬁc number of copies, often numbered and signed by the author.
Limpbound: See Soft Cover.
Linen Finish: Type of book cloth with a two-tone eﬀect caused by white threads showing through the color.
Lining: Material pasted to the backbone of a casebound book that reinforces the glue and helps to hold together the signatures.
Loading Dock: An elevated platform where freight can be loaded or unloaded.
Loupe: A small mounted magnifying lens used to inspect copy, ﬁlm, proofs, plates, and prints.
Matchprint: See Dry Proof.
Moire: An undesirable screen pattern caused by incorrect screen angles of overprinting halftones. In four-color process, the angles that are most commonly used to avoid moire are black 45 degrees, magenta 75 degrees, yellow 90 degrees, and cyan 105 degree
Negative: Film containing an image in which the values of the original are reversed so that the dark areas appear light and vice versa (the reverse of positive).
Negative RRED: An acronym for negative ﬁlm that is right reading emulsion down. This type of ﬁlm is primarily used by printers in the United States.
Notch Binding: A form of adhesive binding in which a series of notches are cut in the spine on the binding machine to let the adhesive penetrate. Also known as Burst Binding.
Overrun: Copies printed in excess of the speciﬁed printing quantity. Also known as “Overs.” See R/O.
Overs: See Overrun.
Pagination: Numbering pages consecutively.
Pallet Jack: A hand-operated lift used to pull pallets from the truck interior onto the lift gate. Required for shipments to destinations without a loading dock.
Paperbound: See Soft Cover.
PDF: Portable Document Format. A ﬁle format developed by Adobe Systems for representing documents in a manner independent of the original application software, hardware, and operating system used to create the ﬁle.
Perfect Binding: A non-sewn binding method using ﬂexible adhesive to hold individual pages in place, commonly used for paperback books.
Perforation: Small slits through paper or board that may be inserted on a press or a folding machine to facilitate the folding of thicker materials.
Pixel: The individual “picture elements” that form the smallest visible and manipulable part of a color image in electronic color imaging systems.
PLC: Printed Laminated Cover. A hardbound book with printed image wrapped over board.
PMS: Pantone Matching System. Pantone, Inc.ʼs check-standard trademark for color reproduction and color reproduction materials. Each color bears a description of its formulation (in percentages) for subsequent use by the printer. Also known as Color Matching System.
Point System: Type size measurement system. (1) Anglo-American in which the point is 0.013837 of an inch or 0.351457mm and 12 points make a Pica. (2) Didot in which the point is 0.376065mm and 2 points make a Cicero.
Portrait (or Upright): A book or other printed matter with a greater height than width.
Positive: Film containing an image in which the dark and light hues are the same as the original (the reverse of negative).
Positive RRED: An acronym for positive ﬁlm that is right reading emulsion down. This type of ﬁlm is used almost universally outside of the United States.
Prepress: Processes prior to presswork, including design, camera work, color separating, stripping, and platemaking.
Press Proof: Press sheets printed in advance of the bindery run to check for the consistency and accuracy of images, tone value, and color.
Printing: The process of reproducing an image or text from a plate, die, negative, stencil, or electronic memory.
Process Colors: The subtractive primaries, which are yellow, magenta, cyan, and black in four-color process printing.
Process Printing: Printing done using yellow, magenta, cyan, and black inks. Also known as Color Process Printing or Four-Color Process.
Proforma Value: The customers declared value, not our sales price.
Progressive Proofs: Proofs made from the separate plates for each process color, showing the sequence of printing and the result after each additional process color has been applied. Also known as Progs.
Progs: See Progressive Proofs.
Prooﬁng: Trial prints done on paper of comparable or equal weight, stock, and ﬁnish to the speciﬁcations, but not necessarily on the exact paper speciﬁed. Pages are usually proofed in two-page spreads, on one side of the paper only.
PVC: Polyvinyl chloride. A plastic resin on which images can be printed, often used for banners and cards.
Quality Control: The inspection of random samples throughout all stages of production during a print run to check for consistency and quality.
Register: To print two or more images on the same paper so that they ﬁt together in exact alignment with each other.
Registration Marks: Small guides used for positioning ﬁlm register or for registering two or more colors in process printing.
Reinforced Endsheets: Strengthening and reinforcing the book binding by aﬃxing muslin tape around the fold of the ﬁrst and last signatures of a book and respective endsheets.
Reprint: To rerun a print from standing negatives, with or without corrections.
RFQ: Request for Quotation. A request for pricing from a potential client for a particular product or service.
RIP: Raster Image Processor. The device that converts text and graphics information into the dot pattern that will be imaged onto ﬁlm or paper.
R/O: Run-on. The lower cost applied to additional copies of a book or product. See Overrun.
Running Head: A title repeated at the top of each page of a book.
Running Sheets: Actual ﬂat printed sheets, sometimes submitted before binding.
Scaling: Reducing or enlarging an image without changing the ratio of the dimensions.
Score: A crease made in a board to facilitate folding on the intended line.
Screen Angle: See Moire.
Scuﬃng: Ink that smears or comes oﬀ a printed sheet. Also known as rub-oﬀ.
Section Sewn: The process by which a signature is reinforced by a mechanical sewing machine. Also known as Smyth Sewn.
Self Cover: A cover of the same paper as the inside pages.
Self Ends: A binding in which the endpaper is part of the ﬁrst and/or last section of the book, as opposed to being tipped in separately.
Shrinkwrap: Process by which items are wrapped individually on pallets or skids in a sleeve of plastic ﬁlm which is then heated until it shrinks tightly around the contents.
Signature: In printing and binding, the name given to a printed sheet after it has been folded. A signature can represent 4, 8, 12, 16, or more even-numbered pages.
Silkscreen: A print made from ink forced through fabric screen stencil pores bearing a reverse image of the design to be printed.
Slipsheeting: See Interleaving.
Smyth Sewn: The process by which a signature is reinforced by a mechanical sewing machine. Also known as Section Sewn.
Soft Cover: A book bound with a paper cover. Also known as Paperbound, Limpbound. See also Flexible Binding, Perfect Binding.
Soft Dot: A halftone dot that is less dense at the edge than at its center, giving it a fuzzier image and making it easier to retouch.
Spine: See Backbone.
Spiral Binding: A book binding method in which wires in spiral form are inserted through holes punched along the binding side. Also known as Coil Binding.
Spot Varnish: Varnish printed on a certain area/spot on the page (as opposed to over printing varnish on the entire page) often used on four-color art and photographs in books with coated papers to produce brighter colors.
Stamping: The process of using heat and pressure to transfer an impression from a die.
Stamping Die: A pattern cut in metal for embossing or stamping book covers.
Stochastic Printing: A printing process that uses randomly scattered small, same-size dots of varying densities, similar to the grain in photographic ﬁlm, to produce an image that is closer to continuous tone than halftone processes.
Stripping: Positioning of ﬁlm prior to printmaking. Also known as Film Assembly.
Swatch: A small color sample of the actual ink color or fabric type to be reproduced.
Thumb Index: An index where the dividers are cut into the fore edge rather than stepped, as in a cut-in or tab index.
TIFF: Tagged Image File Format. A ﬁle format generally associated with black-and-white, grayscale, or color bitmapped images produced by a scanner.
Title Page: A page in the front matter of a book that states the title, author, and publisher.
TPS: Trimmed Page Size. The ﬁnal size of a bookʼs interior text pages, which determines the book size.
Trim Marks: Marks that are placed on the copy to indicate the trim size.
Trim Size: The ﬁnal size of a printed product after the last trim is made.
-up: Refers to the imposition of material to be printed on a larger size sheet to take advantage of full press
capacity (i.e., one-up, two-up, three-up, etc.).
UV Coating: A protective liquid coating on book covers and dust jackets, which is dried by ultraviolet light.
UV Varnish: A liquid varnish usually applied to covers. The varnish is applied onto the already printed paper surface and dried and adhered by passing the sheet under ultraviolet light.
Varnish: A thin gloss or matte coating applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance. Varnish is not as strong or as durable as lamination.
Vellum Finish: A toothy, uncoated ﬁnish on paper that is absorbent for fast ink penetration.
Wet Proof: A prooﬁng process using ﬁlm and customer chosen paper stock to create the ﬁnal color quality for client approval. Also known as a Color Proof.
Wire Binding: A binding method in which a continuous double series of wire loops are run through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet. Also known as Wire-O-Binding, which is a copyrighted name.
Woodfree Paper: A porous paper normally used for text pages that does not have a chemical or clay coating and is quick to absorb inks.
Yellow: The name given to the yellow ink used in four-color process printing. Yellow reﬂects red and green light and absorbs blue light.